From a disciple of evolution

What is common among ‘Internet’, ‘stock markets’, ‘societies’, ‘economies’ and ‘human body’? Apparently nothing, except they are very complex. Bingo! And I welcome you to the field of ‘Complex Systems‘.

What is Complexity and where from does this emerge? Well, to my belief, this question itself is fairly complex to understand, comprehend and explain. Getting answers to this question is ‘The story of blind men and an elephant‘. Complexity, as a recursive definition, is ‘The state of being complex; intricacy; entanglement’, according to Wikipedia. I try to simplify it for myself as followed in this post.Internet map

I see complexity synonymous to scale. Any system can be represented using three Fundamental Abstractions: Entities, Interactions and Constraints/Invariants. When there are simple entities with simple interactions and/or simple constraints, things are within control; but wait; only when they are small in number. I mean this because there are numerous such systems, that help strengthen this belief. For example, in a stock market, which is a complex system. Now imagine a stock market with only two stocks, only tens of brokers whereas the market is open for only short interval. Each of the transaction is regulated by the law of the land. The system is comparatively easy to comprehend. However I am not at all talking anything about ‘Predictability‘ because it is very difficult for any open system.

Apart from fundamental abstractions there emerge Derived Abstractions. For a Complex system the cardinality of the set of derived abstractions is sufficiently large to ‘make’ it complex. The beauty is that this formal system is self-sufficient to represent any system. Now I would like to restrict all this discussion is around Computation and ‘A New Kind of Science‘ and I have no intention to cross ‘Gödel’s incompleteness theorems‘.

We, the Humans, understand through perception. Complexity can be understood iff (if and only if) its facets are understood (which are entities, interactions and constraints). With an assumption that the data about these facets is already captured, what remains is to navigate through the results. A concept like ‘Faceted Browsing‘ is very useful for such a navigation. Using a semantic interface within a browser, such as ‘Exhibit‘ developed at MIT, as a part of ‘SIMILE’ project. However in order to make them really useful, there has to be a way to capture the facets. Out of various ways to model the system, for example UML, formal methods, ontology, the last one looks quite promising. So continuing with our assumption, we can use the domain ontologies to navigate through an instance of the complex system. Longwell, another software developed as part of SIMILE project, gets one there, albeit not exactly there. This is just a beginning…

I have developed a small demonstration of faceted browsing – navigation of GNU Compiler Collections’ invocation options. The demo is a subset of all options and it is yet not at its best. However it is fairly usable. More to come. An important thing – the demo works only with Firefox. Some of the typical use-cases can be –

  • While compiling a ‘C++’ program on a ‘x86-64’ architecture supporting ‘SSE4a’ instruction set, what series of optimizations one should supply to the compiler.
  • How to make loop optimizations such as unrolling, auto-parallelization, etc.
  • What are the options supported on, say, warning levels?

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